What does the word sport mean? Each of us, by the term sport, will probably have another discipline, but in principle we agree that there is active movement in sport. This is not entirely accurate, sport is not just about moving.
The word sport is of Anglo-Saxon origin and derives from the word disport. It means cheering, distraction, actually escaping from work, from the duty of entertainment.
The term sport is commonly referred to as physical (physical) activity under certain rules and practices, the results of which are moreover measurable or comparable to other operators in the same sporting sector.
Three limitations are important in the definition above, namely that it is a physical activity, which excludes activities where it competes only with mental capabilities or happiness – such as board games, computer games or games of chance. Sports activity has clear rules to compete – this excludes from the field of sport, for example, war (although it has become an entertaining sport for some individuals) And last but not least, this activity has a competitive character and its results are measured excludes, for example, martial arts operated in a non-competitive, philosophical way such as yoga, tai chi,
Now let’s take a glimpse into history and imagine a modern sport. The beginnings of sport in today’s words are usually associated with the technical revolution, whose leading country was in the 19th century England. Physical effort, which is not directly related to survival or war conflict, at that time gradually became the privilege of “higher levels”, a widespread form of entertainment and activities run by all classes of society.
By the second half of the 19th century (and in the vast majority of cases just in England), the majority of the most popular sports today are based on a general basis – that is to say, “if you respect the rules, you can play with us (or rather against us) who are you and where are you from? “
The creation of the modern Olympic Games, which is associated with the name of Pierre de Coubertino and 1896, is absolutely essential for the further development of sport. Sport becomes a specific and still minority way of entertainment with a cultural and later political phenomenon.
What is doping?
We have already spoken on our site a few times, but we do not do anything to repeat it. As doping, sport means the use of substances and methods listed in the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) list of prohibited substances and methods. The intended effect of doping is, in particular, an immediate increase in performance or acceleration of regeneration during training. Essentially, however, doping is a pharmaceutical composition for the treatment of seriously ill persons. Athletes, do you feel fatally sick?
Power-ups have been active in sport since antiquity (for example gladiators used a mixture of honey and alcohol). Top-level sporting competitions have been extensively monitored for abuse since the last quarter of the 20th century, and are regularly the cause of a number of scandals, both for sportsmen and entire teams and unions. In the case of doping, athletes are always a step ahead of the Anti-Doping Committee, creating new and new stimulants, and new testing methods with them.
Due to possible doping, top athletes are required to submit samples of urine or blood for analysis immediately after the competitions are over or visiting an anti-doping commissioner. Any positive test results usually lead to the disqualification of the athlete from the competition and the removal of medals and other awards. In addition, the case is dealt with by a Disciplinary Board, and, as a rule, banning activities for a certain period or lifelong ban.
As doping, sport means the use of substances and methods listed in the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) list of prohibited substances and methods. The intended effect of doping is, in particular, an immediate increase in performance or acceleration of regeneration during training.
The International Olympic Committee, which introduced the first anti-doping controls for the Olympic Games in 1967, defined doping as follows: “Doping is the use of substances that belong to a group of forbidden drugs but also the use of illegal methods such as blood-doping.”
Power-enhancing substances have existed since antiquity (for example gladiators used a mixture of honey and alcohol). He has been closely watched since the last quarter of the 20th century in the top sporting competitions, and is regularly the cause of a number of scandals.
Due to possible doping, top athletes are required to submit samples of urine immediately for the analysis immediately after the end of the competition, if any, the positive result of the test leads to the disqualification of the athlete from the competition and the removal of the medal and other awards.
In some cases, the pressure on athletes is increased by irresponsible trainers and sports organizations to use sporting records to use doping media.
On the other hand, some athletes, especially when their sporting performance is lacking due to a more advanced age, will reach for themselves after doping. They do not want to lose their glory, feelings of self-realization, or the material benefits that top sport brings to them, and so resort to the use of prohibited doping means.
Doping substances, the list of which is very numerous, can be divided into several groups according to their effects on the human organism:
stimulating agents – have a stimulating effect on the central nervous system. They increase attention, reduce fatigue, increase competition, but also aggressiveness. For example, amphetamine, ephedrine.
narcotic analgesics – relieve pain, but their use is associated with a risk of physical or mental dependence. The most well-known are morphine, codeine.
anabolic steroids – This group includes chemical compounds related to male sex hormone – testosterone. Anabolic steroids are most commonly used in such sports where it is interested in increasing the muscle mass, strength and performance of the athlete (for example, bucklers, splinters, marathons, etc.).
beta-blockers – these are substances that reduce the frequency of heart contractions. In sport, they are most often abused where small physical activity is required but where emphasis is placed on accuracy, such as shooting discipline.
diuretics – these are substances that cause increased urinary excretion from the body. Athletes abuse them primarily to achieve a rapid reduction in body weight in sports where prescribed, or in cases where they have used other prohibited doping agents, and are trying to quickly reduce the concentration of these substances in the urine prior to anti-doping control.
Drugs whose use is prohibited include alcohol and many other narcotic and psychotropic substances.
blood doping – this is essentially a blood transfusion. An athlete usually leaves blood, then continues training. Immediately prior to the race, blood transfusions are returned to the body, possibly along with other blood products, which increases its ability (used for example in endurance disciplines such as cross-country skiing, cycling, swimming).
use of chemicals – these are banned substances listed in detail in the lists of substances that are attached to legal documents regulating doping issues. As for the application of substances, they get into the body most often by ingestion, ie digestive tract, or by injection into a vein or muscle.
Sports, where scandals most often occur, include cycling, athletics, cross-country skiing or swimming.
One of the most famous doping sinners is former US athlete Marion Jones, holder of 5 gold medals from OH or World Championship. In October 2007, Jones admitted to using doping between 2000 and 2001, ending her sports career. Jones was forced to return all five of her Olympic medals and canceled all her achievements since September 2000.